How to maintain a CNC machine tool?
Maintaining and maintaining the machine can maintain the best machining accuracy, extend the service life, and adopt the correct startup and debugging mode for the CNC machine. In the face of new challenges, it can show a good working condition and improve production efficiency and processing effect.
Ⅰ.the maintenance of CNC machine tool shutdown
There are many types of CNC machine tools, and various types of CNC machine tools have different characteristics due to their functions, structures, and systems. The contents and rules of maintenance and maintenance also have their own characteristics. The specific maintenance system should be formulated and established according to the type, model and actual use of the machine, and with reference to the requirements of the machine tool manual. Here are some common general maintenance points.
- Machine cleaning: Clean the workpieces, fixtures and iron filings in the machine tool, clean the iron chips in the external chip conveyor; wipe the external sheet metal clean, clean the electric control box air conditioner and oil cooler filter.
- anti-rust treatment: clean the workbench clean, put on anti-rust oil; the machine runs slowly for one hour to lubricate the line rail; whether the cutting fluid needs to be replaced, priority is given to prevent rust, and the machine needs to work when it starts to work. Cutting fluid.
- Do the total power-off, gas-breaking, and disconnection of the workshop: Run the Y-axis of the CNC machine tool to the middle, return the Z-axis to zero, and turn off the machine’s main power switch and transformer incoming switch, air source, etc.
- waterproof and moisture-proof: close the electrical box to protect.
- the machine tool is also anti-rat treatment to prevent the mouse from breaking the wire
Ⅱ. the CNC machine tool startup debugging
CNC machine tools are a high-tech mechatronics equipment. It is very important to start the machine in the correct way. This largely determines whether the CNC machine can play its normal economic benefits and its own service life.
Check before starting: Check the peripheral environment of the machine, whether there is any abnormality such as water in the electrical box, and whether the oil has deteriorated.
Step by step: You must check the power supply voltage of the machine before starting the machine. Be sure to turn on the power switch of the machine after the main switch of the power supply is turned on for about 10 minutes. Then turn on the other power switches in the power box to check whether the voltage is out of phase. Too low, turn on the machine power supply without any abnormality and observe whether there is any abnormality and whether there is any air leakage. Do not perform any action when the power is turned off without alarm, and let the electrical components be energized for 30 minutes.
Slow movement: Check for interference, move the machine tool all the way with the handwheel, and pay attention to the abnormality before performing the OPR step.
Machine running-in: Automatically and slowly run the machine for a long time, rotate the spindle at low speed.
Ⅲ. CNC machine tools often appear faults
Fan failure: The fan in the machine can cool and cool the core equipment, effectively avoiding overheating damage. At the end of the long holiday, the machine fan often “strikes”, which is caused by oil stains. When the machine is stopped, the fan inside the machine will also stop. At this point, the oil in the machine will flow into the bearing of the fan, causing a short circuit failure in the circuit of the fan, and the fan will not alarm when it is turned on. The longer the downtime, the greater the risk.
Seal failure: Seals are indispensable in machine hydraulics and pneumatics to ensure the tightness of the unit and maintain its normal pressure supply. Seals are generally rubber products, which are prone to aging. Especially during long holidays, the machine does not start for a long time, and the hydraulic pressure does not flow. This makes it easier to cause the seal to harden, resulting in oil leakage of the machine tool and insufficient pressure provided by the hydraulic device.
Oil circuit blockage: The reason for the blockage of the oil circuit is caused by the long-term shutdown of the machine tool and the continuous deposition of dirt in the oil circuit. Blockage of the oil circuit can cause the lubrication system of the machine tool to malfunction, and the failure of the lubrication system will cause many other serious problems. According to statistics, more than 40% of all kinds of common faults in machine tools are related to lubrication faults.
The machine tool stroke switch is faulty: The machine tool stroke switch is an important device that limits the mechanical stroke range of the machine tool axis. When the moving parts of the machine are pressed to the transmission parts of the stroke switch, the internal contacts act to turn on, change or break the control circuit. Meet the control requirements of the circuit. The inside of the travel switch is usually equipped with a spring. If it is not turned on for a long time, the spring will be deformed due to long-term stress, and the spring will not be restored. The spring will lose its function and the entire travel switch will be stuck and will be invalid.
The driver, power supply, motherboard, and other circuit board failure: In CNC machine tools, the role of the circuit board needless to say. The circuit board has a large number of capacitors. If it is not energized for a long time, these capacitors will age and the capacity will be reduced, resulting in damage to the machine circuit. In addition, the main reason for the failure of the board is that the board will not be in the bottom temperature for a long time, causing condensed water and causing a short circuit when starting up.
Machine battery failure: Generally, the CNC system is equipped with a battery. It should be noted that the battery mentioned here is not the power supply of the whole device, but the device that supplies power to some components. For example, the system battery is used to save system parameters; the absolute position encoder battery is used to remember the zero position. Even when the battery is not turned on, the power in these batteries will slowly drain. If the battery is not turned on for a long time, it is easy to make the battery run out, resulting in loss of machine data.
Ⅳ.The avoidance of CNC machine tool failure
- For machine tools that have been used for a long time, try not to shut down during the long holiday, and you can take an emergency stop.
- Regularly check the system fan. If it is contaminated with too much oil, it should be replaced or cleaned. If it is used for more than 3 years, it must be replaced.
- Regularly check the hydraulic oil pressure, liquid level and hydraulic impurities in the hydraulic system to ensure the smooth flow of the oil.
- Periodically provide cleaning or lubrication to the spring switch such as the switch, the arm spring, and the hydraulic valve spring.
- according to the situation of the driver equipment contaminated with oil, regular cleaning.
- Regularly replace the system battery for the machine tool and replace the desiccant for the machine tool electrical cabinet. Especially before the long holiday shutdown, you should not forget this step.
- After the long holiday is over before the power is turned on, manual preheating of each circuit board of the machine tool is required. The electric hair dryer can be used to heat each circuit board for a few minutes, which is slightly warm.
CNC machine tools are highly automated, with high precision, high efficiency and high adaptability, but their operating efficiency, equipment failure rate, and service life are also largely determined by the correct use of users. And maintenance. A good working environment, good use, and maintenance, will not only greatly extend the trouble-free working time, improve productivity, but also reduce the wear of mechanical parts, avoid unnecessary mistakes, and greatly reduce the burden on maintenance personnel.